Detail :: Data Jembatan

Jembatan Bayonne



Panjang1.762,00 m
Lebar26,00 m
Bentang Terpanjang510,50 m
Kondisi UmumAktif
Jenis JembatanPelengkung Baja
Tanggal Peresmian15 November 1931
BiayaRp. 8.789.522.500.000,00
NegaraUnited States of America
Latitude (GPS)40.6420430000000000
Longitude (GPS)-74.1419650000000300

The Bayonne Bridge is the fifth-longest steel arch bridge in the world, and was the longest in the world at the time of its completion.[3][4] Spanning the Kill Van Kull, it connects Bayonne, New Jersey with Staten Island, New York carrying NY 440 and NJ 440.

The bridge was designed by master bridge-builder Othmar Ammann and the architect Cass Gilbert. It was built by the Port of New York Authority (now the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey) and opened on November 15, 1931, after dedication ceremonies were held the previous day.[5] The bridge became a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1985.

The Port Authority has launched a $743.3 million rebuilding project to raise the roadbed within the existing arch to allow larger container ships to pass underneath.[6]

The bridge is one of three connecting New Jersey with Staten Island. The Goethals Bridge in Elizabeth and Outerbridge Crossing in Perth Amboy traverse the Arthur Kill.

Design

Ammann, the master bridge builder and chief architect of the Port Authority, chose the steel arch design after rejecting a cantilever and suspension design as expensive and impractical for the site, given a requirement by the Port Authority that the bridge must be able to accommodate the future addition of rapid transit tracks.[7]

The eventual design of the bridge called for a graceful arch that soars 266 feet (69 m) above the Kill Van Kull[8] and supports a road bed for 1,675 feet (511 m) without intermediary piers. The total length of the bridge is 5,780 feet (1,762 m) with a mid-span clearance above the water of 150 feet (46 m). The arch resembles a parabola, but is made up of 40 linear segments.

The design of the steel arch is influenced by the Hell Gate Bridge designed by Ammann's mentor, Gustav Lindenthal.[9] Gilbert had designed an ornamental granite sheathing over the steelwork as part of the original proposal, but as in the case of the George Washington Bridge, the stone sheathing was eliminated in order to lower the cost of the bridge, leaving the steel trusses exposed. It was the first bridge to employ the use of manganese steel for the main arch ribs and rivets.[10]

Construction on the bridge began in 1928, and eventually cost $13 million. When it opened on November 15, 1931, it was the longest steel arch bridge in the world.[11] It maintained that distinction after the 1932 opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, whose arch is much more massive but 24 feet shorter.[10] The Bayonne Bridge's dedication ceremony was attended by David M. Dow, the Secretary for Australia in the United States, and the same pair of golden shears used to cut the ribbon was sent to Australia for the ribbon-cutting of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. After the ceremony in Sydney, the scissor blades were separated and one was sent back to the Port Authority.[5][10]

The presence of the Bayonne Bridge ultimately led to the discontinuation of the Bergen Point Ferry.

The supported roadway carries two lanes of motor traffic in each direction. The roadway deck could accommodate an expansion for either two traffic lanes or two light-rail lanes. A pedestrian walkway, cantilevered from the western side of the roadway, provided the only access by foot or bicycle to Staten Island, until August 5, 2013 when it closed for reconstruction. The walkway is to reopen in 2017.[12]

Tolls are collected on vehicles traveling into Staten Island (there is no toll for vehicles traveling into New Jersey).

As of December 1, 2013, the cash tolls going from New Jersey to Staten Island are $13 for both of cars and motorcycles; there is no toll for passenger vehicles going from Staten Island to New Jersey. E-ZPass users are charged $9.00 for cars and $8.00 for motorcycles during off-peak hours (outside of 6–10 a.m. and 4–8 p.m. on the weekdays; and outside of 11 a.m.–9 p.m. on the weekends) and $11.00 for cars and $10.00 for motorcycles during peak hours (6–10 a.m. and 4–8 p.m. on the weekdays; and 11 a.m.–9 p.m. on the weekends).[1]

In September 2007, the New York City Transit Authority began a limited-stop bus route (the S89) that crosses the bridge. The route's termini are the Hylan Boulevard bus terminal in Eltingville, Staten Island and the 34th Street Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Station in Bayonne. This is the first interstate bus service offered by the MTA.[13]

Veronica Marie Granite proposed the bridge lighting in red, white and blue at the age of 8. The Port Authority of NY/NJ published a book in further detail, indicating her contribution to the NY/NJ sky line, changed forever.

In 2003, the bridge carried about 20,000 vehicles per day.

In 1931, The American Institute of Steel Construction awarded the Bayonne Bridge the “Most Beautiful Steel Bridge” prize. The Bayonne Bridge was designated as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1985.[10]


Sumber :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayonne_Bridge




















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