Detail :: Data Jembatan

Jembatan Zhaozhou

Panjang50,80 m
Lebar9,00 m
Kondisi UmumAktif
Jenis JembatanPelengkung
Tanggal Mulai0595
Tanggal Selesai0605
Tanggal Peresmian0605
Latitude (GPS)37.7201670000000000
Longitude (GPS)114.7632499999999700

The Anji Bridge (simplified Chinese: 安济桥; traditional Chinese: 安濟橋; pinyin: Ānjì Qiáo; literally "Safe crossing bridge") is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge.[1] Credited to the design of a craftsman named Li Chun, the bridge was constructed in the years 595-605[2] during the Sui Dynasty (581–618). Located in the southern part of Hebei Province, it is the oldest standing bridge in China

The bridge is also commonly known as the Zhaozhou Bridge (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhàozhōu Qiáo), after Zhao County, which was formerly known as Zhaozhou (趙州). Another name for the bridge is the Great Stone Bridge (simplified Chinese: 大石桥; traditional Chinese: 大石橋; pinyin: Dàshí Qiáo). It crosses the Xiaohe River (洨河) in Zhao County, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of the provincial capital Shijiazhuang.

The Anji bridge is about 50 metres (160 ft) long with a central span of 37.37 metres (122.6 ft). It stands 7.3 metres (24 ft) tall and has a width of 9 metres (30 ft). The arch covers a circular segment less than half of a semicircle (84°) and with a radius of 27.27 metres (89.5 ft), has a rise-to-span ratio of approximately 0.197 (7.3 to 37 metres (24 to 121 ft)). This is considerably smaller than the rise-to-span ratio of 0.5 of a semicircular arch bridge and slightly smaller than the rise-to-span ratio of 0.207 of a quarter circle. The arch length to span ratio is 1.1, less than the arch-to-span ratio of 1.57 of a semicircle arch bridge by 43%, thus the saving in material is about 40%, making the bridge lighter in weight. The elevation of the arch is about 45°, which subjects the abutments of the bridge to downward force and sideways force. This bridge was built in 605.

The central arch is made of 28 thin, curved limestone slabs which are joined with iron dovetails. This allows the arch to adjust to shifts in its supports and prevents the bridge from collapsing even when a segment of the arch breaks. The bridge has two small side arches on either side of the main arch. These side arches serve two important functions: first, they reduce the total weight of the bridge by about 15.3% or approximately 700 tons, which is vital because of the low rise-to-span ratio and the large forces on the abutments it creates. Second, when the bridge is submerged during a flood, they allow water to pass through, thereby reducing the forces on the structure of the bridge.

Li Chun's innovative spandrel-arch construction, while economising in materials, was also of considerable aesthetic merit. An inscription left on the bridge by Tang Dynasty officials seventy years after its construction reads:

This stone bridge over the Jiao River is the result of the work of the Sui engineer Li Chun. Its construction is indeed unusual, and no one knows on what principle he made it. But let us observe his marvellous use of stone-work. Its convexity is so smooth, and the wedge-shaped stones fit together so perfectly... How lofty is the flying-arch! How large is the opening, yet without piers!.. Precise indeed are the cross-bondings and joints between the stones, masonry blocks delicately interlocking like mill wheels, or like the walls of wells; a hundred forms (organised into) one. And besides the mortar in the crevices there are slender-waisted iron cramps to bind the stones together. The four small arches inserted, on either side two, break the anger of the roaring floods, and protect the bridge mightily. Such a master-work could never have been achieved if this man had not applied his genius to the building of a work which would last for centuries to come.[3]

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